Bovarism is the term that denotes a person's state of discontent towards its own existence, constructing a fictitious personality to match his ideals. This alter ego of the person functions as a protection from too cruel world for which is not ready for. The term is closely related to Emma Bovary, the heroine of the novel "Madame Bovary" written by Gustave Flaubert. The paternity of the term belongs to Jules de Gautier, French writer and philosopher.
The simple and dull life of the heroine, the wife of a country doctor in Normandy, does not meet Emma expectations regarding her life and she throws herself into turmoil romantic adventures, hoping to live the sensational stories of love she read about in books with such a passion. But the disappointment of reality pushes Emma to tragic end - the suicide.