Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet born in Hispania. He is best known for his twelve books of epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. He wrote a total of 1, 561, of which 1, 235 are in elegiac couplets. He is considered to be the creator of the modern epigram.